This paper has demonstrated that a combined device (including four individual pain measurements tools) would be more effective for locating, measuring, and monitoring treatment progress than palpation alone. If one biosensor indicates tissue damage then a second, or a third, fourth, fifth, and or sixth measurement taken simultaneously would give concurrent validity at that pain site.

Researchers need a tool for treatment outcomes effectiveness studies in pain. Clinicians need way to locate pain sites, identify quantity and quantity for patients’ subjective pain complaints of pain. This paper recommends a combination of tools to be combined creating a multi-modal biosensor that can be used along side of clinical palpation and pain questionnaires.

A tool containing a series of four biosensors combined into a single device that, in addition to locating the damaged tissue, will graphically display the differential comparisons between pain sites and healthy tissue. This devise would give concurrent validation for subjective complaints and provide a singular simultaneous measurement producing a differential diagnosis.

There is simply no supporting research in available literature on valid clinical or epidemiologic evidence to support certain current practices in the treatment of spinal disorders. For other practices, there are simply conceptual or analytical inadequacies.

The following have been identified as priorities for future research efforts including clinical, etiology, economic, ergonomic, and the provision of care:

  • Exact anatomical origin of pain
  • Correlation between the injury; the type of tissue damage and their acute and chronic effects on pain
  • Mechanical functioning of the bio-logical structure
  • Clinical practice
  • Studies of the sensitivity, specificity and the predictive value of diagnostic value of diagnostic methods- both old and new ones
  • Acceptable methods of cost-benefit risk-benefit and cost-effectiveness studies
  • Identification factors of those who are likely to develop chronic symptoms and chronic disability
  • Development of standardized and validation of measurement scales that assess the response to different types of therapy


This is my forth thesis. I have had the privilege of writing thanks to a grant from the Massage Therapy Association. The Canadian Chapter for the International Association for the Study of Pain (1998), published Pain Relief at the Touch of a Hand and (2000) published a second abstract on a palpation and third on a measuring device for pain. (IASP, 1998)

Since chairing the research committee for the Massage Therapy Association BC in 1993, I realized associations need tools to measure pain to provide proof of treatment outcomes. Our idea was to provide objective measurements for subjective pain experiences.

According to the International Association for the Study of Pain, no tools exist to meet today’s need for evidence-based practices. As a 26-year veteran medical massage therapist I have used soft palpation to locate both chronic and acute inflammations that cause pain when pressure is applied which subside and patient claim miraculous results. I wanted to find a way to prove massage outcomes for evidence based practices that would also enable us to bid for our services to be included in insurance coverage payments.